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"丝绸之路"、"万里茶路"叠加路段

在今河南平顶山境内的路径和人文环境初探

(河南 平顶山 467100)

袁桂娥 刘继增 刘彩平

  摘 要:以历史地理学、文化地理学、地方文献学的学科方法,以人地关系为视域,三维关照,探究"丝绸之路"、"万里茶路"叠加路段在今河南平顶山市境内经行路线和人文环境的当代价值。

  关键词:丝绸之路 万里茶路 平顶山 人文环境

  作者简介:袁桂娥(1963—),女, 平顶山学院教授、硕士生导师,研究方向:中原地域文化;刘继增(1958.2--),男,河南郏县人。平顶山市地域文化研究会理事,研究方向:三苏文化及中原地域文化;刘彩平(1970.10—),女,河南郏县人。平顶山市委党校郏县分校教师。研究方向:中原地域文化。

  伏牛山地区的方城博望西周属缯国,在方城与今平顶山的叶县交界处设"缯关","天下九塞,方城其一"即指此处;方城博望为张骞封侯地,张骞为中国出使西域第一人;鲁山是汉唐时期中原著名柞蚕产区,其丝绸通过三鸭路、方城道运往洛阳。唐开元二十四年春,唐玄宗命三百里内县令、刺史入京献演,多少地方官兴师动众,独元德秀仅携几个民间伶人身着鲁山丝绸,轻装简从,抚琴献演。主簿刘华劝他:"东都献演,非同小可,山野俚曲难登大雅之堂,身着山绸,恐污圣上耳目。"岂料受唐玄宗通令嘉奖,鲁山丝绸名声大震⑼p373。鲁山作为丝绸之路的东起点的重要源头,致使"民有丝绢紬一絁之富"(嘉靖《鲁山县志卷一•风俗》,至今仍留有"宁舍老婆娘,不舍蚕丝行"农谚。⑼p373

  "万里茶路"是与"丝绸之路"齐名的国际商贸通道,山西、陕西两地商人经行 今河南平顶山"丝绸之路"、"万里茶路"叠加路段向俄罗斯的恰克图运送了25万吨以上的茶叶,其价值至少有100万两黄金。通过"万里茶路"运送俄罗斯恰克图的中俄茶叶贸易曾引起远在欧洲的马克思特别关注①p72-73

  汝州自明成化6年(1471年)升为直隶州,至有清一代,与今河南平顶山市辖区大致相当。"丝绸之路"、"万里茶路"叠加路段在今平顶山境内究竟如何走?学术界对此莫终一是:"经赊店转北进入方城县,由此而北经鲁山直奔郏县,转西北过临汝直去洛阳。""从方城道上最后经郏县赶来的车马,由三鸭路走出层层山峦经鲁山而来的驼骡终归汇于一处,那便是汝州。" ⑸p116-118(万里茶路/常士宣,太原:山西人民出版社2009年8月第1版)"茶叶之路选择了方城路,而不是三鸦路" ⑺p107(晋商万里茶路探寻/韩少雄,太原:山西人民出版社2012年8月第1版)。

  本文试图以地方文献学、历史地理学、文化地理学的学科方法,以人地关系为视域,三维关照,探究"丝绸之路"、"万里茶路"叠加路段在今河南平顶山市经行路线和人文环境的当代价值,以期对中原经济区"五大战略"的实施具有借鉴和启迪的意义。

一、"万里茶路"路经今平顶山的文献依据

  "万里茶路"路经今平顶山,散见于山西乔家大德诚商号文献档案、福建惠安和今平顶山市辖县的清代方志。

  自康熙二十八年(1689)中俄签订《尼布楚条约》准许茶叶互市后,晋商在恰克图相继开设大型商号29家之多⑶p2。大德诚商号位于山西祁县乔家堡西街路北,专营三和茶、德和贡尖,在俄罗斯恰克图和河南赊店设有分号。大德诚的文献档案至少有以下几则:

  1、光绪二十三年(1897)赊(店)合行公议发货限日期新定章程:"河南府(今河南洛阳)、汝州、禹州马车脚价付九次一,以十天为期限,二十天见票,误期每车罚银八两;会镇(今三门峡市湖滨区会兴镇)马车限发十六天送到,三十天见票,误期每车罚银八两;汝州、禹州牛车限十二天送到,误期每车罚银二千钱。⑷p501

  2、赊(店)发汝州装牛车例底:装花茶,以十四件为正载,外捎二件为三担半算帐,每厢解比西厢高银五分合付。如多装一件,要除内之捎载也。法曰:置一件为实,以一十六件为法归一,一件内应捎一分二厘五,以四件作担,三厘一毫二丝五,即以一两六钱解价,合除该捎银五分,如装东厢例同舞渡。如装茶梗、花茶配装,每茶装茶梗一十一包,,花茶八件,解价例同花茶,每载高银一钱,假(如)花茶每担一两四,茶梗每栽银五两。⑷p506

  3、郏县 系河南所属。其地所出之布,长四丈三,宽一尺,重二斤五两,高者四百来条线子大谱均钱九百几。彼平比曹平没白两大一两,每疋出用钱二十文,客抽钱五文,每天出火食费五十文,每担出工钱五十文,缝苫布工钱没连十二文,每大卷绳钱二十五文,小卷绳钱一十五文,二大卷、二小卷作一担,每担发禹州脚钱五十文。以大卷三十二疋、小卷一十七疋成之。⑷p628

  4、行商遗要:"行水路、走江湖,跋涉艰难;勿华丽,学朴素,免惹盗窃;晚早宿,晨早行,以防不测,水、陆路,遇生疏,最忌相伴;若同帮,宜逊让,务尊敬";"每日里,十点眠,五点即起,(眉批:究实临小满节,每日四点即起)。⑷p481

  梳理现存山西乔家大德诚商号三则档案,"万里茶路"经水路至河南赊店转旱路,目标是经汝州(今河南平顶山)达河南府(今河南洛阳)。运送茶叶的车辆多为马车和牛车;也可捎载从当地采购的产品:如郏县所产之布和酒曲("郏县旧以曲名四方,而售于山右者尤多"(同治三年《郏县志》卷三,《典地志•物产》)。跟随运送茶叶车辆的"行商"老板,衣着"朴素"、做事谨慎,以"免惹盗窃"和不测事件的发生;路经汝州(今河南平顶山)需要有行商和车夫打尖、歇脚的安排。"每日里,十点眠,五点即起。小满节,每日四点即起起床上路";且到达汝州州治所在地还有天数的要求,配套有奖惩措施,其惩罚的银钱数额是惊人的。如:从赊(店)到汝州马车以十天为期限,二十天见票,误期每车罚银八两;牛车12天送到,误期每车罚银二千钱。

  从福建惠安和鲁山、宝丰、叶县、郏县的清代方志中可知,汝州的地方官吏为"万里茶路"境内路段安全畅通提供了有力地保障。位于的川陕孔道之上郏县冢头镇,商旅辐辏,蓝河穿镇而过,知县因修桥"以便商旅"而升迁。同治三年《郏县志》卷二《职官志•知县》:"知县盛彦,陕西阳曲人,举人,康熙元年任。修蓝水桥,以便商旅,升宿州知州。" ⑾卷二p38雍正二年,知县陈王绶,捐俸倡众重修,高大宏敞,民乘便焉。⑾卷四p110百姓立生祠纪念。

  地方官在协调西商与当地百姓关系政绩显著的,奉旨入祀名宦、乡贤二祠纪念。据同治郏县志载,嘉庆十七年(1812)秋,大旱,禾尽枯;嘉庆十八年(4813)正月朔,黄风三日。三月麦遍生细虫,数日尽枯。大旱,至七月十三日始雨,尽种荞麦。九月二十日大霜,荞麦又尽枯,人相食;嘉庆十九年(1814),大疫。⑾p413(同治郏县志p413)嘉庆十九年(1813)任河南郏县知县的惠安孙珩,他初赴郏县,当地百姓迫于生计,田亩为西商购买殆尽。他即出榜贱价赎回。有西商赂以两万金欲阻之,他严辞斥责:"吾不以金易吾民也!"乞身回闽,郏人制文序,远赴睢阳攀辕泣送焉。⑾卷七p183道光21年<1841>奉旨崇祀郏县名宦祠,同治六年<1867>奉旨崇祀孙珩的家乡福建泉州乡贤祠。⑾卷七p183、[24] p1110

二、"万里茶路"在今平顶山境内的路标

  "万里茶路"行经汝州境内,行商需要有打尖、歇脚的地方;需要有消解途中疲惫、联络乡情、放松娱乐的地方。在茶商必经路段上的商务会馆——山陕会馆便应运而生,成为探寻"万里茶路"在今平顶山境内的路标。他们是:

  ⑴郏县城关镇西关街的山陕会馆,清康熙三十二年(1693年)21户山陕客商捐资创建[21]p6892013年5月公布为全国重点文物保护单位。

  ⑵郏县冢头镇南寨门外的山陕会馆,据会馆现存碑刻记载,清乾隆十九年(1754)秋重修大殿及庙门、民国二十九年(1940)9月重修。2012年9月公布为市级重点文物保护单位。

  ⑶汝州南关东大街山陕会馆,康熙三十年(1693)山西、陕西两省旅汝客商集资兴建。⑹p113

  ⑷汝州蟒川乡半扎山陕会馆,乾隆27年(1762)建,南距汝州城17公里。山西潞安侨居半扎街经营杂货的王复云捐资创建,并施香火地二十余亩,义茔地二十亩。义士樊光彩于乾隆44年(1779年)添建乐楼(戏楼)三楹;义士魏佩、魏绣弟兄捐庙地70亩。⒇卷之六p33

  ⑸宝丰大营镇山陕会馆,位于县城西17.5公里大营镇南关,清雍正八年(1730年)山西大同商人阎奇捐资重修;清乾隆五十六年(1791)重修山陕会馆拜殿月台。⑾p696

  ⑹叶县县城北关山陕会馆(同治《叶县志》卷二;叶县地方志编纂委员会整理本1988年7月第1版中州古籍p142

  ⑺叶县旧县镇山陕会馆(同治《叶县志》卷二;叶县地方志编纂委员会整理本1988年7月第1版中州古籍p142

  ⑻叶县任店镇山陕会馆:位于任店镇任二村。距县城西10公里。建于乾隆42年(1777年),现存石碑上刻有"山西夫子",题跋为:"乾隆岁次丁酉梅月",落款"古晋商贾同建"。1985年公布为县级重点文物保护单位。[21]p587

  ⑼叶县保安镇山陕会馆,位于宝安镇西北隅500米。距县城南30公里。⒃p312-313

  ⑽鲁山县城西关山陕庙,始建于康熙三十二年(1693),乾隆八年(1743)《鲁山县志》载有"山、陕商人建。" ⑼P721、[25] p254-256

  ⑾鲁山东北乡山陕会馆,乾隆八年(1743)《鲁山县志》载有"在东北乡,山陕商人建。"。⑼P723

  ⑿鲁山梁洼山陕会馆,"梁洼南寨门外山陕关爷庙、北寨门外山陕老君庙、北寨门内山陕关爷庙,为清雍正四年(1276)前后山西、陕西商人建的会馆。⑼P705

  ⒀鲁山张良镇山陕会馆,位于张良镇南街,由陕西"王和顺"商号捐建,占地25亩。[26]p207-220乾隆八年(1743)《鲁山县志》有"在东南乡,山陕商人建。张良店。"的记载。⑼P724

  "万里茶路"在汝州境内的路段上兴建会馆,需要经济实力。如:乾隆27年(1762),侨居半扎街山西潞安经营杂货的王复云捐资创建半扎山陕会馆,并施香火地二十余亩,义茔地二十亩。樊光彩添建乐楼(戏楼)三楹;魏佩、魏绣弟兄捐庙地70亩。郏县城关镇西关街的山陕会馆,康熙三十二年(1693年)21户山陕客商捐资创建。嘉庆年间郏县知县孙衍在《归田稿文》中有云:"前年豫省被灾,惟郏县为重。而郏人在籍置产者尚不及十分之一,西商射利居奇者,已不啻十之八九。"

  在今平顶山境内的13处山陕会馆中,建馆最的是康熙三十年(1693)建成的汝州南关东大街山陕会馆;清康熙三十二年(1693)建成的有鲁山县城西关山陕庙、郏县县城关西关的山陕会馆两处。建馆最集中的的是鲁山县梁洼。雍正四年(1726)前后鲁山县梁洼一地分建三个会馆,即南寨门外山陕关爷庙、北寨门外山陕老君庙、北寨门内山陕关爷庙。其余10处大多为乾隆年间建。

  "万里茶路"在汝州境内留下的山陕会馆中,在蓝河穿镇而过的郏县冢头会馆为河大王庙,在陶瓷产地鲁山梁洼会馆为老君庙,显示出山陕商人入境随俗,借庙为馆、建馆为庙,不仅是单纯地祭祀神灵,而是借助神灵展示形象的显著特征。

三、"万里茶路"今平顶山境内的道路选择

  三鵶路、方城路是清代南阳盆地通往河南府(今河南洛阳)、开封的重要通道,也是有清一代汝州(今河南平顶山)境内的两条经济大动脉。

  三鵶路又称三鵶路、三垭路。"垭",意为两山之间的狭窄地方。三鸦路狭指今南召县皇路店至今南召与鲁山的分界处鲁阳关的百里路段。《读史方舆纪要》卷四十六:"今三鸦路自南阳府北六十里故向城,又北有石川路,一名百重山,即三鵶之第一,府北七十里分水岭而北,即三鵶之第二由,由故向城而北又八十里有鲁阳关,入鲁山县界,即三鵶之第三。旧时邓、汝二州与鲁阳关分界,荆豫逕途,斯为险要,张景阳诗'朝登鲁阳关,埉路峭且深'者也。"⒆p2126清嘉庆《鲁山县志》:"今三鸦路自南阳府北六十里之故向城(今南召县皇路店),又北有石川路,即三鸦之第一;府北七十里分水岭而北,即三鸦之第二;由故向城而北,又八十里,有鲁阳关,入鲁山县界,即三鸦之第三。亦司马芝与母遇贼处也。"清代御史蒋机《鲁阳道中》也写到:"历涉迷津七十渡,马蹄频濯障泥空"此路的险要难行。广指自南阳石桥以北至陕州双观音堂。今平顶山境内的宝丰县城,故号通鸭城。据《元和郡县志•卷六》载:"龙兴县城本通鸭城,即后汉贾复城也。后魏太和二十三年,孝文帝新征马圈,行至此城,昏雾,得三鸭引路,遂过南山,故号通鸭城。" ⒆p169自通鸭城至汝州,横亘一长达四十五里的山岭,名曰"虎狼爬岭",当地民谚有云:"自(宝丰)官衙至(汝州)半扎,四十五里虎狼爬"。故乾隆《续修河南通志》有载"自南阳石桥以北至陕州双观音堂,凡数百里,皆鸦路也。"三鸦路被誉为"荆豫逕途"。现存的清顺治十年(公元1653年)鲁阳关楼石刻门匾上刻有"古鸦路"三个大字,题注有"北通晋秦,南连楚蜀",是宛、洛间最近捷、险要的道路。

  方城路:伏牛山余脉东延至方城县东北,与桐柏山脉相结合之处,突然沉陷,形成了一条东西宽约三十余里、南北长达百余里,较为平坦的天然隘道。这条通道在春秋战国时已开拓成途。其是楚国和中原华夏各国的交通要路,故当时专称为'厦路"。《史记•越王勾跷世家》:"夏路以左,'不足以备秦。"索隐引刘氏云:楚适诸夏,路出方城,人向北行,以西为左,故云夏路以左"。因方城隘口位于方城境内,称之为方城路。清时,方城路不仅是南襄和中原的交通要道,也是京师与湖广及云、贵间的往来通道。商贾往来"皆自襄阳至南阳,趋道方城路抵郑州,渡河沿太行山东麓抵京"。

  "万里茶路"在今平顶山境内以河南府(今河南洛阳)、汝州州治为阶段性走向目标。分布在三鵶路上的山陕会馆有:鲁山县城山陕会馆、宝丰县大营山陕会馆、汝州半扎山陕会馆、汝州山陕会馆;分布在方城路有:叶县保安山陕会馆、旧县山陕会馆、叶县县城山陕会馆、郏县冢头山陕会馆、郏县城山陕会馆、汝州山陕会馆;分布在连接鵶路、方城路的鲁——叶段有张良店山陕会馆;结合判读嘉庆鲁山县志、道光宝丰县志、同治郏县志、同治叶县志、道光汝州志的舆图,"万里茶路"在今平顶山境内的路径为:

  方城路:方城独树镇-----方城隘口--(20里)--叶县保安镇---(30里)---旧县--(30里)---叶县城--(50里)--阳关(李口店、张家店)--(26里) --三郎庙--(24里)---郏县城--(50里)长阜街---(40里)--汝州城

  旧县分途:----汝坟桥---<襄城----颍桥>---冢头—团造--郏县城

  三鵶路:南召---鲁阳关-(81里)--三鸭镇-(19里)--鲁山县城--(80)--滍阳--(20)--通鸭城(今宝丰县城)----大营镇--(45里)--半扎--(60里)--汝州城

  通鸭城(今宝丰县城)分途:--(40里)--郏县城--(50里)长阜街---(40里)----(汝州城)

  "万里茶路" 今平顶山境内三鵶路、方城路段,留有大量物质和非物质文化遗存:

  鲁阳关:在(鲁山)县西南九十里,与南阳府南召县分界,当洛阳与南阳盆地间三鸭路交通要冲,一名鸭路镇。

  平高城:又名三鵶镇,在(鲁山)县界西南十九里。杜祐曰:"宇文周筑此以备齐,又置三鵶镇为戌守重地。"亦曰平高城,城当三鵶之口。今遗址出土地表约5米,,面积1万平方米。

  通鸦城:龙兴县城本通鸭城,即后汉贾复城也。后魏太和二十三年,孝文帝新征马圈,行至此城,昏雾,得三鸭引路,遂过南山,故号通鸭城。⑽卷三p74-75

  虎狼爬岭灵官庙创建拜殿及施茶地碑:碑在今汝州小屯镇吴岭村村南灵官庙东壁。创建拜殿及施茶地碑系光绪元年二月,地处虎狼爬岭的富户谭水全把自家10亩岭地施舍给灵官庙作为茶地,无赏为过往商旅提供茶水所立。碑文正文213字,碑题:创建拜殿及施茶地碑记;落款为:大清光绪元年二月吉日。

  半扎寨:位于河南府(今河南洛阳)、南阳的三鸭路上距离之中而得名,是过往商旅必然停歇之站点。民谚有云"从官衙到半扎,四十五里虎狼爬"。官衙村,即唐代白居易故宅,元代临汝郡公塔里赤官衙所在地,位于虎狼爬岭东端,清代属宝丰双酒务。山西"八大义"商号在半扎设有八个分号,寨中有十八盘水磨加工粮食供应旅店、饭馆,故"万里茶路"上有"吃不完的大营饭、住不完的半扎店"之称。2013年5月公布为河南省首批传统村落。

  阳关:在县城东南50华里处,今属平顶山。阳关又称昆阳关、沙涧口,在故昆阳城北,有兵戍守。东汉初王莽徵天下兵与汉战,世祖以数千兵邀之于阳关,诸将惧莾兵盛,反走入昆阳处也。[19]p2434据同治《郏县志卷三:舆地志》载,张寨山、铧角山,距(郏)县城东南五十里,两山之间名沙涧口。涧长数里,横亘石桥,石路三百余丈,通郏、叶往来,亦扼要之地。

  三郎庙:该村原名杏花村,位于郏县城东南12公里处,心意拳三代祖师李祯,故里。李祯约生于清乾隆末年(1793),归真于同治末年(1878),享寿85岁左右。李公以驮帮运皮货为生,每日与骡马为伍,马前行,李公则以鸡行步追之,又以鸡行步后退,这样反复往来,故腿下功夫无比深厚,人称鸡腿先生。下传弟子有:郏县同乡张聚、白先师,山西戴龙邦及其二子大闾、二闾等[29]p50-52。据戴家拳谱记载,一日大闾二闾习武时,李政(祯)露出不屑之意,二人请李政(祯)展示功夫,李政(祯,)只做一"蹲猴"桩,文良和文熊不禁哂笑,但二人与李政(祯)交手,却均非所敌,戴隆邦令二子拜李政为师,因李政(祯)行拳时善走"车行如风"的鸡形步,于是又称李政(祯)为"鸡腿先生"。戴隆邦为了李政(祯)能悉心传授自己的儿子,便花了三百两银子为李政(祯)购置了宅院和家产。因此,后世的戴魁先生就常跟弟子们说:我们戴家的拳是花三百两银子买来的。[31]p46-48戴二闾于清嘉庆六年(1801年)来到赊店,创立了广盛镖局,成为"华中第一镖局",为"万里茶路"客商提供安全保障。该村至今存有李祯道光二年(1822)重修清真寺大拜殿的《重修拜殿碑记》碑,心意拳在该村已传承至十一代。如今河南赊店广盛镖局、戴家大院,坐落在最繁华的瓷器街与东万成街交叉口,与号称"天下第一馆"的赊店山陕会馆一街相连,两面临街,内有数个小院,占地2516平方米,有房舍281间。同治年间,与三郎庙毗邻的郏县临沣寨的朱紫峰"以三百金市道侧地十亩,创建义塾一区,前筑茶亭两楹,发天下行旅,无望梅之苦。"(《茶亭碑记》,碑刻现存郏县临沣寨博物馆),宝丰张九成等四监生在"輪蹄络绎之区"三郎庙的茶路附近,置地地四十余亩,创建茶亭,"且不昔二百金,经营之,以示永久。"(《创建茶亭碑记》)⑽p430-4312013年,三郎庙村公布为河南省首批传统村落。

  冢头镇东寨西大街路北秦楚旧居茶具木雕:秦楚旧居位于郏县冢头镇东寨西大街路北,清代建筑。现存有二进院落。临街房三间两层,一进院东厢房三间两层,过厅楼三间两层,二进东厢房三间,过厅三间。其精华在一进院过厅楼,为高台式建筑,门前六级红石台阶,出前檐,檐下两根柱子,三开木质棂子门,它一改吉祥图案入三雕(石雕、砖雕、木雕)的传统,赫然有四幅茶具木雕,显见"万里茶路"对当地的影响,列入全国第三次文物普查新发现(编号:410425-0121),对研究"万里茶路"提供了珍贵的实物资料。

  张良店:西距(鲁山)县城17公里,因张良曾在此安营扎寨而得名,后改名留侯镇,又易名张良镇。明代形成商埠,鲁山至叶县的车马大道穿街而过,路宽2-3米,可通行独轮车、铁轮牛马车、和多套马车,成为客商打尖、歇脚的地方。乾隆年王和顺捐建的山陕庙于农历三月十八竣工唱大戏三天庆贺(三月十六、十七、十八);农历三月二十八泰山庙会:山陕庙建成后轰动四方,张店四街绅士和商界认为,长了他人锐气,灭了自己威风,遂筹资紧靠山陕庙东墙建起一座泰山庙(取泰山压顶之意)庙前迎面也建起一座戏楼(尚存)。三月二十八泰山庙建成竣工,也照样唱大戏三天庆贺,形成庙会,"两会"一街连台的格局[26]p217。1992年,河南省建设厅命名为中州名镇。

  余 论

  1、"万里茶路"今平顶山境內通道的开拓,以茶商为主体。康熙二十八年,中俄签订协定,俄国从中国长期进口茶叶。以雍正五年(1727)10月《中俄恰克图条约》签订为标志,中俄茶叶贸易进入稳定发展的时期。"万里茶路"开通,茶商先行。早在康熙三十年(1693),山陕两省茶商在汝州南关东大街建成的山陕会馆、康熙三十二年(1693)在鲁山县城西关山陕庙、郏县县城关西关的山陕会馆。雍正五年(1727)《中俄恰克图条约》之后,又在平顶山境内陆续建成13处会馆。

  2、"万里茶路"今平顶山境內通道的人文环境,其形成机理呈现出以官府主导,茶商、官府、社会三者相互作用的印记。地方官府:一方面出面修桥、建桥,确保茶路畅通,其政绩卓著者奉旨入名宦,形成舆论氛围。另一方面,在社会两极分化极端化,百姓田亩为西商购买殆尽时,地方官府出榜贱价赎回,实施调控;过境茶商:运送货物过境时"勿华丽,学朴素"的行商遗要,显示出入境随俗、力求融入当地社会的强烈意愿,同时,他们又借庙为馆、建馆为庙,借助神灵展示茶商的形象;当地社会:茶商的行为理念冲击和激荡着社会民俗。有郏县、宝丰士绅如朱紫峰、张九成等纷纷有在茶路旁创建茶亭义举出现,方便客商和车夫。叶县"其俗有佩服着文绣,宴会烹海错者。以故晋魏贾贩,操赢猬集,力穑所获,半归廛肆。" ⒁卷一p96;张良店当地绅商以承办办庙会与山陕商会馆的客商展开市场形象塑造的竞争。巨大的人流、物流,促进了沿路如滍阳、冢头、半扎等商贸集镇的兴盛,郏县冢头镇2010年跻身为全国历史文化名镇,鲁山张良镇、宝丰大营镇入列中州名镇,半扎公布为首批河南传统村落。

  3、"万里茶路"今平顶山境內通道伴生的"非遗"。作为"内家三拳"之一的心意拳是中华民族大家庭中的回族民间传承的武术拳种,具有族内传承、地缘传承、血缘传承三大传承特征。第三代祖师李桢嫡传弟子戴二闾创办广盛镖局,在"万里茶路"上为茶商提供安全保证,使心意拳赢得声誉,戴二闾由此名列"中国十大镖师",号称"华北第一镖局"的广盛镖局跻身"中国十大镖局"行列,在中国武术发展史上留下浓墨重彩的篇章,成为宝贵的民族记忆。《中原民俗丛书》专章记录下"万里茶路"在郏县冢头镇留下的"进茶馆"的民俗,被誉为"中原民俗文化的第一块路标"。丛书《编者寄语》云:"你可以不同意我的观点,你不能不承认如砥如屿般结实的材料。" [32] p2

  注 释

  ①茶叶之路•欧亚商道兴衰三百年/邓九刚,呼和浩特:内蒙古人民出版社2000年10月第1版p72-73:

  亚洲腹地掀起的商业风暴 一座全新的国际商埠在亚洲腹地出现 马克思对恰克图贸易的特别关注

  马克思在他的《俄国人与中国人》、《政治经济学批判》中这样写道:"这种贸易,采取一种年会方式进行。由12个商馆经营其事,其中6个是俄国人的,6个是中国人的。他们在恰克图会商决定双方所供给商品的交换比例——因为贸易完全是物物交换。中国方面交换的是茶叶,俄国方面是棉毛织品。""恰克图一代的边境贸易,事实上根据条约都是物物交换,银子不过是价值尺度。"

  我想,马克思关于中俄恰克图贸易的论述肯定会在当代中国读者心理引起强烈的亲切感,同时也会引出具有责任心的中国人的自责,你看,远在欧洲的马克思早在 一百年前就对我国与俄国的边境贸易深有研究,而我们自己的事情却漠不关心,置若罔闻,岂不惭愧乎?

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A Study on the Overlapping Routes in Pingdingshan

between the Silk Road and the Wanli Tea Road

and Its Cultural Environment

April 11, 2014

Liu Jizeng & Liu Caiping

A Study on the Overlapping Routes in Pingdingshan

between the Silk Road and the Wanli Tea Road

and Its Cultural Environment

  Abstract: This paper makes an inquiry into the relations between humans and geography according to the methodology of historical geography, cultural geography and local philology theory. The results of this paper will be helpful for learning the contemporary significance of the overlapping routes in Pingdingshan between the Silk Road and the Wanli Tea Road and its Cultural Environment.

  Key words: the Silk Road, Wanli Tea Road, Pingdingshan, Cultural Environment

  Authors: Liu Jizeng (1958- ), male, who was born in Jiaxian county of Henan, director of Pingdingshan Regional Culture Research Associates, doing research on three Sus culture and regional culture in central China; Liu Caiping (1970- ), female, who was born in Jiaxian county of Henan, teacher of Communist Party School of jiaxian county, doing research on the regional culture of central China.

  Bowang of Fangcheng in Funiu Mountain region was governed by Zeng state in the Western Zhou Dynasty. In the junction of Ye xian (a small county of pingdingshan, Henan) and Fangcheng set ZengGate which was called one of the nine fortresses in that era. Bowang was the area that the emperor gave to Zhang Qian as a lord who is the first man on a diplomatic mission to the Western Regions (a Han Dynasty term for the area west of Yumenguan Pass). Lushan County in central China was famous for its sericulture in Han and Tang Dynasties. The silk products were carried to Luoyang via Sanya Road and Fangchengdao Road. In the spring of 24th year in Kaiyuan of Tang Dynasty, the emperor Xuanzong ordered the magistrate and prefectural governor within 300 Chinese miles to give a performance in the capital. It aroused too many people to prepare. Only Yuan Dexiu with several folk actors in Lushan silk performed their Qin (a musical instrument) with little luggage and few attendants. The Zhu Bu of the county named Liu Hua advised that the performance was not a trivial matter and the mountain folk songs were not in good taste and the dress of Lushan silk clothes were disrespectful to the emperor. Amazingly, the silk gained fame after the praise from the emperor Xuanzong⑼p373. Lushan, as an important source of the eastern beginning of the Silk Road, had so many rich people who were engaged in sericulture and silk. There is a farmer's proverb that sericulture is more important than wife. ⑼p373

  The Wangli Tea Road was equally famous with the Silk Road as the international trade and business channel. 250,000 tons of tea was transported to Kyakhta of Russian by the businessmen from Shanxi and Shanxi provinces going through the superposed section of The Wangli Tea Road and the Silk Road. The value was at least 1,000,000 Chinese tael of gold. The tea trade via the Wanli Tea Road to Kyakhta between China and Russian draw special attention from Marx in Europe①p72-73.

  Ruzhou was raised to Zhili Province since the sixth year of Chegnhua of Ming Dynasty, and was almost as large as Pingdingshan city of Henan province when it came to Qing Dynasty. And where does the superimposition of the Silk Road and the Wanli Tea Road lie in Pingdingshan? There are different sounds in academic circle, "Passing by Shedian it turns north into Fangcheng County, then it goes straight to Jiaxian county after going through Lushan mountain, and at last it turns northwest for Luoyang, passing through Linru", or "The carriages from Fangcheng county which has finally passed through Jiaxian county, end up converging with the hinnies walking through hills and mountains in one location, and that is Ruzhou". ⑸p116-118 ( the Wanli Tea Road/Chang Shixuan, Taiyuan: Shanxi People's Publishing House, first edition in 2009 August). "The Wanli Tea Road was selected to locate at the route of Fangcheng instead of Sanya". ⑺p107 (The Exploration of the Way of Tea of Shanxi Merchants/Han Shaoxiong, Taiyuan: Shanxi People's Publishing House, first edition in 2012 August).

  This paper intends to apply methodology of Local philology, Historical Geography and Cultural Geography, with the horizon of Humane Environment and concerns of Three Dimension, to explore the contemporary values of the Overlapping Routes in Pingdingshan between the Silk Road and the Wanli Tea Road and its Cultural Environment so that we can provide references and edifications for the Five Strategies of Central China Economic Zone

I.The Literature of the Wanli Tea Road Passing through Pingdingshan

  The Wangli Tea Road passes today's Pingdingshan, which was scattered in files of Shanxi Qiao's Dadecheng store, Huian of Fujian province and the Qing Dynasty local chronicles concerning counties governed by Pingdingshan.

  The Treaty of Nerchinsk was signed between China and Russian in 1989(the 28th year in Kangxi). After that, Shanxi businessmen built more than 29 business houses in Kyakhta ⑶p2. Dadecheng store was located in the West Street, Qiaojiaobu, Qixian county, Shanxi, in which Sanhe Tea and Dehegongjian Tea were sold. And there were branches in Kyakhta of Russian and Shedian of Henan. The ancient records in Dadecheng include at least several records:

  1. The newly- set regulations in 1897 (the 23th year of Guangxu) concerning delivery date limit: "Henan provinve (today's Luoyang of Henan)", Ruzhou, Yuzhou's carriage prices must pay 90% for first time, the dead line is ten days. The draft limitation is 20 days. Every carriage would be fined 8 taels of silver if it was delayed. Huizhen (today's Huixing city in Sanmenxia)'s carriage date limitation is 16 days and the draft should be seen within 30 days and if it was delayed every carriage would be fined 8 taels of silver. In Ruzhou and Yuzhou, the carriages by cattles must be delivered in 12 days and if delayed every carriage would be fined 2000 Qian. ⑷p501

  2. Taking oxcart from Shedian to Ruzhou for an example: one cart can carry 40 boxes of scented tea, with extra 2 boxes which weighed one and a half Dan. The extra is inclusive in the two boxes. The regulaiton was that 16 boxes were a unit and a box was 1.25 li. Four boxes was one dan. If tea stems and scented tea were transported, every box of tea consisted of 11 boxes of tea stem and 8 boxes of scented tea. The transporting fee of tea stem was 1 Chinese taels higher than scented tea. ⑷p506

  3. Jiaxian county belongs to Henan. the cloth produced in Jiaxian is 4.3 zhangs long, a foot wide, weighs 2.5 jins, the highest is four hundred lines. Bi ping has much more 1 taels than Cao Ping per 100 taels. It costs 20 pences for one cloth every handicraft and guest can get 5 pences. Everyday the boarding fee costs 50 pences. There are 50 pences for every Dan., 12 pences for Seaming tarpaulin, 25 pences for big rope money, 15 pences for small rope money,. 1 Dan includes 2 big rolls and 1 small roll. It costs 5 pences to Yuzhou for 1 Dan. Big roll consists of 32 and small does 17 cloths. ⑷p628

  4. records of businessmen. "travel by water, walk, trap; Not gorgeous, learn simplicity, avoid make theft; lodge and walk earlier so as to take precaution; encounter the unfamiliar by water or land, avoid company; with accompany, respect and modest are important."; "everyday sleep at ten o 'clock at night and get up at 5". ⑷p481

  Carding the three existing files in Shanxi Qiao's Dadecheng store: the Wanli Tea Road by waterway to Henan Shedian turn overland route and its target is Henan Province (Luoyang city) through Ruzhou (belong to Pingdingshan city of Henan province). The vehicles for transporting tea are usually horse and cattle and also used to carry the local specialty, such as the clothing and the yeast that produced by the county of Jiaxian (Jiaxian county was famous for it's yeast and the yeast was mostly sold to the people who lived in the right of mountains. (Vol.3 of Records of Jiaxian County in the era of the 3rd year of Tongzhi, named Typical topographical – products). In order to avoid being robbed or something bad, the boss who follows the vehicles that transported tea wore plain clothes and be cautious. The businessmen and cart drivers need to take a rest if they pass by Ruzhou. They slept at ten at night and got up at five in the morning everyday, but they had to get up at four when it came to the Grain buds. And there were limitations to the number of days when they reached the destination of Ruzhou, which were enclosed by a set of measures of rewards and punishments and the fine amount of money was amazing. For example, from Shedian to Ruzhou, the limitation to the length of time is ten days for gharries and if they didn't arrive in 20 days they would be charged and they would be punished for eight taels every carriage ;products must be sent to the right place in 12 days for bullock-carts and if the date was delayed two thousand qian would be given every carts.

  From the local records in Qing Dynasty of Huian in Fujian and Lushan Mountain, Baofeng, Yexian county, Jiaxian county, the local officials in Ruzhou provided a strong security for the Wanli Tea Road. Business was prosperous in Zhong tou Zhen in Jiaxian, and the Lanhe River crossed the county. The county magistrate was promoted because of providing convenience to businessman and travellers. In the 3rd year of Tongzhi emperor, "official records, county magistrate" in the records of Jiaxian kept a record that: "the magistrate, Sheng Yan, Shaanxi Yangqu, Ju-ren, the first year of Kangxi. He repaired the blue water bridge for the business, and was promoted to the magistrate of Suzhou" ⑾volume2, p38. In the 2nd year of Yong Zheng emperor, county magistrate Chen Wang Shou, donated and called the public to rebuild it, which was broad and large. People got convenience. ⑾volume 4, p110 So people established a living temple memorial for him.

  The local governor got prominent political achievement in coordination of the relationship between western merchants and local folks, winning the emperor's praise of entering the two worship houses of Famous Official and Local Saint for memorial. According to Jiaxian county log in the Era of Tongzhi, Jiaqing 17th year (1812), severe drought, all crops withered; Jiaqing 18th year(1813), mid-first lunar month, yellow wind for 3 days. The third month, wheat crops suffered thin worm, and withered in three days. Severe drought until the first rain on 13th of the seventh month, buckwheat planted. On 20th of the ninth lunar month, severe frost, buckwheat withered all, people eating people; Jiaqing 19th year (1814), severe epidemic.⑾p413(Tongzhi Jiaxian county log p413) Jiaqing 19th year (1814), the county magistrate of Jiaxian county, Henan province, Sun Yan of Hui'an just arrived in administration. Land was totally bought by the western merchants from the poor local folks. He signed orders to redeem at low price. Some merchant attempted to bribe him 20,000 liangs of gold to stop it. He lashed out, "I won't betray my people for gold!" When retired back to return to Fujian, folks of Jiaxian county, composed oration and saw him off accompanying till Huaizhi with tears.⑾p183 of Vol.7. Daoguang 21st year(1841), he was included according to the emperor's praise in the memorial in the worship house of Famous Officials in Jiaxian county; Tongzhi 6th year(1867), he was memorialized in the worship house of Folk Saints in his hometown Quanzhou, Fujian province.⑾column 7 p183,[24] p1110

II. Road Marks of the Wanli Tea Road in the current Pingdingshan

  The Wanli Tea Road went through Ruzhou, and merchants needed places to have a snack and rest, or to have a refreshment, associate with country fellows and relax and entertain themselves. So business guildhall along the pass of tea merchants--Shan-Shan Guildhall came into being, which are the road marks of the Wanli Tea Road in current Pingdingshan. They are as follows:

  1. Shan-Shan Guildhall of Xiguan Street of Jiaxian county town,constructed with the financial donation of 21 Shan-Shan merchants in Kangxi 32nd year(1693)of Qing dynasty.[21]p689 In May,2013, it was declared to be one of the national relic protection unit.

  2. Shan-Shan Guildhall at the southern village gate of Jiaxian Zhongtou town. According to the record in the guildhall remaining inscription, in Qianlong 19th year(1754), the hall and gate were restored while in September,1940,it was restored. It was announced to beone of the national relic protection unit in September,2012.

  3. Shan-Shan Guildhall of Ruzhou Nanguan Eastern Street. Merchants from the two Shanxi provinces gathered money to construct it in Kangxi 30th year(1691).⑹p113

  4. Banzha Shan-Shan Guildhall of Ruzhou Tengchuan town, constructed in Qianlong 27th year(1762), 17 kilometers away from Ruzhou City in the north. The grocery merchant of Banzha Street, Wang Fuyun, who was from Lu'an, Shanxi, donated money, constructing it. Meanwhile, he donated incense land 20 acre and righteous land 20 acre; the righteous guy Fang Guangcai constructed musical building(drama building) three layers to it in Qianlong 44th year(1779); the two brothers Wei Pei and Wei Xiu donated temple land 70 acre.⒇column p33

  5. Shan-Shan Guildhall of Baofeng Daying town, located in the Nanguan of Daying town 17.5 kilo west from the county city. It was restored with the donation of Shanxi Datong merchant Yan Qi in Yongzheng 8th year(1730).In Qianlong 56th year(1791), the balcony was restored of the worshiping hall.⑾p696

  6. Shan-Shan Guildhall of Beiguan of Yexian county city(Tongzhi Yexian Log, column 2; Yexian local log edition committee book,Central China Ancient Documentsp142 1988-7-1 )

  7. Shan-Shan Guildhall of Jiuxian town of Yexian county(Tongzhi Yexian Log, column 2; Yexian local log edition committee book,Central China Ancient Documentsp142 1988-7-1 )

  8. Shan-Shan Guildhall of Rendian town of Yexian county: located in the Ren'er village of Rendian town. 10 kilo west from the county city. Constructed in Qianlong 42th year (1777). The remaining inscription bears "Shanxi Confucius", with its preface "Qianlong 2nd Ding Chou club month" , and the signature "ancient Jin merchant co-construction". It was announced to be the county relic protection unit in 1985.[21]p 587

  9. Shan-Shan Guildhall of Bao'an town of Yexian county.500 meters away in the northwest corner of Bao'an town and 30 kilometers away from the county city.⒃p312-313

  10. Shan-Shan Guildhall of Xiguan of Lushan county. Constructed in Kangxi 32nd year(1693).In the Lushan County log of Qianlong 8th year (1743) is there "Shan,Shan merchants constructed".⑼P721、[25] p254-256

  11. Shan-Shan Guildhall of Dongbei town of Lushan county. In the Lushan County log of Qianlong 8th year (1743) is there "in Dongbei town,Shan-Shan merchants constructed".⑼P723

  12. Shan-Shan Guildhall of Lushan liangwa. "Shan-Shan Guanye Temple at the south village gate,Shan-Shan Guanye Temple at the south village gate, Shan-Shan Laojun Temple at the north village gate and Shan-Shan Guanye Temple in the north village gate were all constructed by Shanxi and Shanxi merchents around Yongzheng 4th year(1726)."⑼P705

  13. Shan-Shan Guildhall of Zhangliang town of Lushan county, located in the south street of Zhangliang town, was donated and constructed by Shanxi "Wang He Shun" business, occupying 25 acre of land.[26]p207-220In the Lushan County log of Qianlong 8th year (1743) is there "in Southeast, Shan,Shan merchants constructed, Zhangliangdian".⑼P724

  To construct guildhall on the road of the Wanli Tea Road in Ruzhou, financial power must be necessary. For example,in Qianlong 27th year(1762), the grocery merchant of Banzha Street, Wang Fuyun, donated money, constructing Shan-Shan Guildhall. Meanwhile, he donated incense land 20 acre and righteous land 20 acre. Fang Guangcai constructed musical building (drama building) three layers. Wei Pei and Wei Xiu donated temple land 70 acre. Shan-Shan Guildhall of Xiguan Street of Jiaxian county town was constructed under the donation of 21 Shan-Shan merchants in Kangxi 32nd year (1693). The county magistrate of Jiaxian in Jiaqing period, Sun Yan said in Back to Country Writing: "the year before last year, Henan province suffered severe drought, especially in Jiaxian. The Jiaxian folks could not be able to number one-tenth to them and the speculators of western merchant could not be their 8 or 9-tenth".

  Of the 13 Shan-Shan Guildhall in Pingdingshan, the earliest are Shan-Shan Guildhall of Ruzhou Nanguan Eastern Street constructed in Kangxi 30th year(1691), the Lushan county city Xiguan Shan-Shan Temple and the two Shan-Shan Guildhalls in Jiaxian Nanguan East Street constructed in Kangxi 32th year(1693). The densest is around Lushan Liangwa. Around the Yongzheng 4th year, just in Lushan Liangwa,there were three Shan-Shan Guildhalls:Shan-Shan Guanye Temple at the south village gate,Shan-Shan Guanye Temple at the south village gate, Shan-Shan Laojun Temple at the north village gate and Shan-Shan Guanye Temple in the north village gate. The other ten were all constructed in years of Qianlong.

  Among the guildhalls on the Wanli Tea Road in Ruzhou, Jiaxian Zhongtou guildhall is the river load temple where the Lanhe river goes through the town. The china production land Lushan Liangwa guildhall is a Laojun temple. It indicates the Shan-Shan merchants do as Romans do, getting temple to be guildhall and constructing guildhall as temple, which not just honor the gods and spirits, but also demonstrates its peculiar features of god worship.

III. Route Selection of the Wanli Tea Road in Pingdingshan

  Sanya Route and Fangcheng Route are the essential routes from Nanyang Basin to Henan Province (the current Luoyang) and Kaifeng during the Qing dynasty. They are also the two economic arteries in Ru State of Qing dynasty (the current Pingdingshan).

  Sanya Route is also called Sanyaor or Sanya route. "Ya" means the narrow pass between two hills. Narrowly speaking, Sanya route refers to the hundreds li road from Huangludian, Nanzhao county to Luyang Pass that separates Nanzhao and Lushan. Column 46 of Geographic Abstract of History says: "Sanya route today begins from Guxiang city 60 li from Nanyang province. North goes the Shichuan road, named Baichong Mountain, which is the first Sanya. The north part from watershed, which is 70 li away from Nanyang province,is the second Sanya road. 80 li north from Guxiang city is there the Luyang Pass. It enters the region of Lushan. It is the third Sanya road. In the past, the two districts Ru and Deng are divided by Luyang Pass which is the gateway connecting Jing and Yu states, very advantageous. As Zhang Jingyang's poem 'climbing the Luyang Pass in the morning, gorge road appears steep and deep'describes it all."⒆p2126 Lushan County Log of Jiaqing states: "the current Sanya route begins from Guxiang city (the current Nanzhao Huangludian) which is 60 li away from Nanyang province. The north is Shichuan road, which is the Sanya first; the north from the watershed which is 70 li away from Nanyang is the Sanya second; 80 li north from Guxiang city is Luyang Pass. The road enters the region of Lushan, which is the Sanya third. It is also where Sima Zhi and his mother encountered the gangsters." Censor of Qing dynasty, Jiang Ji's On the Luyang Road describes: "experiencing maze 70 times, the horse still goes through it easily" as the advantageous road pass. Broadly speaking, Sanya route refers to the way from Shiqiao, Nanyang to the Double Guanyin Temple of Shan district. Baofeng county city of current Pingdingshan was called Tongya city in the ancient time. According to column 6 of Yuanhe Prefecture County Log, "Longxing county city is Tongya city, also Jiafu city of Han dynasty. In Taihe 23rd year of the latter Wei, Wen Emperor marched against Majuan. When got this city, he encountered dense fog. Under the guide of three ducks was he able to climb over the south mountain. So he named it Tongya city." ⒆p169 From Tongya city to Ruzhou lies one 45 li long mountain range, named "tiger-wolf climbing range". The local folk sayings say: "from Baofeng administration to Banzha Ruzhou, lies 45 li tiger-wolf climbing". In the Henan Annals Replenish of Qianlong, there is this statement: "the hundreds li road from Shiqiao, Nanyang to the Double Guanyin Temple of Shan district all belongs to Ya route". Sanya route is honored as the "Jing-Yu Pass". The remaining stone plaque on the Luyang Pass fortress from Shunzhi 10th year(1653) bears the inscription--three Chinese characters "Gu Ya Lu" with the note "up to north, it leads to Jin-Qin; down to south, it connects Chu-Shu". It is the shortest and most advantageous route between Nanyang and Luoyang.

  Fangcheng route: Funiu mountain flows east to fangcheng county northeast, where it meets with Tongbai mountains. All of a sudden,there is one subsidence, forming one rather flat natural bottleneck, 30 li broad from east to west and 100 li long from south to north. This route has been developed completely during Spring Autumn and Warring period. It is the essential traffic from Chu state to Huaxia states of central China, so it was called "Sha Road". Yue King Gou Jian Family of The Historic Records: "the west area beside Xia Road 'could not defend the attack of Qin Kindom.' Suo Yin quoted Lady Liu's words: the route from Chu state to Huaxia states must go through Fangcheng. The people of Chu head north, the west side being as the left, so it is called the left of Xia Road". Fangcheng Gap lies in Fangcheng County, so this route is called Fangcheng Route. In the time of Qing dynasty, Fangcheng Route was not only the essential traffic between South Xiangyang and Central China, but also the communication route from the capital to Hu-Guang and Yun-Gui. Merchants travelling must "come from Xiangyang to Nanyang, take the way of Fangcheng Route to Zhengzhou, and then cross Yellow River and walk along the east side of Taihang Mountain until arriving at Beijing".

  "10,000 Li Tea Road" takes Henan Province (the current Henan Luoyang) and the state capital of Ruzhou of the current Pingdingshan as stage orientation aims. The Shan-Shan Guildhalls that disperse along the Sanya Route are: Lushan County city Shan-Shan Guildhall, Baofeng Daying Shan-Shan Guildhall, Ruzhou Banzha Shan-Shan Guildhall, Ruzhou Shan-Shan Guildhall; the Shan-Shan Guildhalls that disperse along the Fangcheng Route are: Yexian Bao'an Shan-Shan Guildhall, Jiuxian Shan-Shan Guildhall, Yexian County city Shan-Shan Guildhall, Jiaxian Zhongtou Shan-Shan Guildhall, Jiaxian County city Shan-Shan Guildhall, Ruzhou Shan-Shan Guildhall; along the route from Lushan to Yexian is there Zhangliangdian Shan-Shan Guildhall; comprehensively analyzing the geographic graphics of Jiaqing Lushan County Log, Daoguang Baofeng County Log, Tongzhi Jiaxian County Log, Tongzhi Yexian County Log and Daoguang Ruzhou County Log, we discover the routes of "10,000 Li Tea Road" in the current Pingdingshan are as follows:

  Fangcheng Route: Fangcheng Dushu town---Fangcheng Gap---(20 li)---Yexian Bao'an Town---(30 li)---Jiuxian---(30 li)---Yexian county city---(50 li)---Yangguan (Likoudian and Zhangjiadian)---(26 li)---Sanlangmiao---(24 li)---Jiaxian county city---(50 li)---Changbu street---(40 li)---Ruzhou city

  Jiuxian Division: ---Rufen Bridge--- (Xiancheng---Yiqiao) ---Zhongtou---Tuanzao---Jiaxian county city

  Sanya Route: Nanzhao--- Luyang Pass---(81 li) --- Sanya town--- (19 li) --- Lushan county city --- (80 li)--- Zhiyang ---(20 li)--- Tongya city (the current Baofeng)--- Daying town---(45 li)--- Banzha ---(60 li)---Ruzhou city

  Tongya city (the current Baofeng) division: --- (40 li)--- Jiaxian county city--- (50 li)--- Changbu street --- (40 li)--- Ruzhou city

  There are plenty of tangible and intangible cultural heritage along the Sanya Route and Fangcheng Route of "10,000 li Tea Road" in the current Pingdingshan:

  Luyang Pass: located 90 li in the southeast of Lushan county city. It is the demarcation from Nanzhao county of Nanyang province and the traffic crossroads on Sanya Route connecting Luoyang to Nanyang basin. It also bears another name, Yalu town.

  Pinggao city: also called Sanya town, located 19 li in the southwest of Lushan boundary. Du You says: "Yuwen Zhou constructed it to defend against Qi, and also set Sanya town for the warriors to settle down." It is also called Pinggao city, of which the city is the gate of Sanya. The ruins are 5 meters tall, occupying 10,000 square meters.

  Tongya city: Tongya city lies in Longxing county, which is also known as Jiafu city in the Eastern Han Dynasty. In AD 499, Emperor Xiaowen of the Northern Wei Dynasty arrived to this place and found it was difficult to push ahead due to the bad weather of faint mist. Luckily, three ducks appeared and led their way to cross South Mountain, thus the place was named Tongya city. ⑽Vol.3 p74-75

  Worshiping palace and tea monument of Lingguan Temple in Tiger&wolf climbing ridge: the monument is located in the east wall of Lingguan temple, Wuling village, Xiaotun town, Ruzhou city. In February, 1875, Tan Shuiqian, a rich man living in Tiger&wolf climbing ridge, devoted his 10 mu land to Lingguan Temple as benefaction, which was used to plant tea trees and served to the passing travelers and businessmen. 213 Chinese characters were engraved in the monument with the title of Worshiping palace and tea monument and the inscription of auspicious days in February, 1875.

  Banzha village: It was located in the middle of Henan Prefecture(Luoyang) and Sanya road of Nanyang, which was the only way for the passing merchants to stop and rest. Guany village, the former residence of Bai Juyi of Tang dynasty, was the location of Gongtali government in Yuan dynasty. It lied in the east of Tiger&wolf climbing ridge, which belonged to Shuanjiuwu, Baofeng county in Qing dynasty. Eight Justice firm of Shanxi province had 8 branches in Banzha village, rich grains were provided to hotels and restaurants. Banzha village was announced as the first batch traditional villages in Henan province in May, 2013.

  Yangguan: It is located in 50 huali southeast of Ye county, now belongs to Pingdingshan. [19]p2434Yangguan is also known as Kunyangguan or Shalvguan. In the Eastern Han Dynasty, a great battle occurred here between Wang Mang and Emperor Shizhu.

  Sanlangmiao village: Formerly known as Xinghu village, it is located in 12 km southeast of Jia county. This village is the former residence of Li Zhen, the third master of heart will boxing. Li Zhen wa born in the late of 1793 and died in 1878. He made a living by transporting furs. Keeping company with horses and mules everyday, Li Zhen learned martial art. Zhang Ju and Bai Xianshi of Jia county, Dai Longbang and his two sons were all disciples of Li Zhen. According to the historical record, Lv brothers were practicing martial art one day, Li Zhen disdained for their performance. Then Lv brothers asked Li Zhen to show his Kong Fu and he did a squatting monkey pose, which was laughed at by Lv brothers. [29]p50-52 But both of them were defeated by Li Zhen. Consequently, Dai Longbang invited Li Zhen to be a master to teach his two sons. To let Li Zhen teach carefully, Dai Longbang purchased house and possesses for Li Zhen at the price of three hundred liang silver. Therefore, Dai Kui, an offspring of Dai Longbang, often said to his disciples that their boxing was purchased at the price of three hundred liang silver. [31]p46-48In 1801, Dai Erlv reached Shedian village and founded Guangsheng security guard company and provided security for tea merchants, which later became the first security guard company in middle China. The monument of rebuilding worshiping palace by Li Zhen in 1822 still exists in this village and heart will boxing has been inherited to the eleven generation in this village. Nowadays, Guangsheng security guard company in Shedian village and courtyard of family Dai were located in the cross between the prosperous china street and Dongcheng street, which were next to Shanshann guild hall of Shedian village. There are 281 rooms and occupies an area of 2516 square meters. During the period of Emperor Tongzhi, Qing dynasty, Zhu Zifeng of Linfeng village, Jia county, built a house to east the thirst of passing tea merchants. Sanlangmiao village was announced as the first batch traditional villages in Henan province in 2013. ⑽p430-431

  Tea wood carvings of former residence of Qin and Chu dynasty in West Street, east village of Zhongtou town: former residence of Qin and Chu dynasty is located in the north of west street, east village of Zhongtou town, which is Qing dynasty construction style. There are two courtyards, three two-story rooms which are close to the street, three two-story rooms in the east wing of the front courtyard, three two-story rooms of the hall, three rooms in the east wing of the back courtyard and three rooms in the hall. The highlight is the hall in the front courtyard, which is a high-terrace architecture. In front of the door are six red stone steps and two pillars and three sub-lattice wooden doors, Different from the tradition of three carvings( stone carving, brick carving and wood carving), there are four impressive tea wood carvings, which shows the great influence of the Wanli Tea Road on the local and is listed in the third national survey of cultural relics(No. :410425-0121). This provides a precious substance material to further study the Wanli Tea Road.

  Zhangliangdian: 17 km to the west Lushan county. It got its name because Zhangliang's army was quartered here. Later, it was renamed Liuhou town and Zhangliang town. In Ming dynasty, the place began to develop a commercial port. The main road is 2 or 3-meter wide and can pass wheelbarrow, iron wheel ox-drawn carriage and wagon sets. Gradually, it became a prosperous traffic artery. In Qing dynasty, the temple fairs of Shanshann and Mountain Tai came into being in Zhangliangdian. [26]p217 Zhangliangdian was named the famous Zhongzhou town by Henan provincial department of construction in 1992.

  Conclusion

  1. The Wanli Tea Road, with tea as the main body, is the channel development within the territory of modern Pingdingshan. In the twenty-eight years of emperor Kangxi, China and Russia signed an agreement, claiming that Russia imported tea from China long-term. In the year of 1727 October "Kyakhta treaty" was signed between China and Russia, and the tea trade with Russia entered a stable developing period. With the opening of the Wanli Tea Road, tea merchants acted in advance. As early as in the Kangxi thirty years (1693), Shanshan guild hall was built in Ruzhou by the merchants from Shanxi and Shan'xi. In the year of 1693, Shan Shan Temple Shan Shan hall were built respectively in Lushan County and Jiaxian County. In the year of 1727, another 13 halls were built in the territory of Pingdingshan.

  2. The Wanli Tea Road lies in the territory of modern Pingdingshan channel environment, its formation mechanism showed the government leading, merchants, government, social interaction. Local government, on the one hand, was trying to repair the bridge and to ensure that the Tea Road unimpeded. On the other hand, the social polarization of extreme, people buy up land for Western developers, the local government put forth a fire call, the implementation of regulation; transit transport goods in transit tea: "Wu Huali, learn simple" merchants left to do, in order to display, enter and exit into the strong will, they borrowed temple hall, hall for the temple, to show the image of merchants; The local society: impact behavior concept merchants and surging social customs. Jiaxian, the gentry of Baofeng such as Zhu Zifeng, Zhang Jiucheng have to create chating gesture in Tea Street, the convenience of customers and the coachman. Yexian County "the custom of admire Wenxiu, banquet cooking sea food. ⒁vol.1p96Zhang Liangdian local merchants for temple and the shanshaan merchant guild do customers and expand market image competition. Stream of people, logistics giant, promoted the prosperity along the road such as Zhi Yang, Zhong tou, semi ligation trading town, Jiaxian Zhong tou Zhen in 2010 into a national historical and cultural town, Lushan Mountain, Baofeng, Zhang Liang Zhen Da Ying Zhen into the town of Zhongzhou, half of the rolling announced as the first batch of Henan traditional villages.

  3. The Wanli Tea Road lies in the territory of modern Pingdingshan channel associated with the "intangible cultural heritage". As a "three punch" boxing is one of the big family of the Chinese nation of the Hui folk martial arts, has a family inheritance, geo heritage, heritage three heritage features. The third patriarch Li Zhen kens disciple Dai Erlv founded Guangsheng biaoju, providing security for merchants in the Wanli Tea Road, the boxing won reputation, wearing Erlv thus manufacturers "Chinese ten biaoshi", known as "the first North biaoju" Guangsheng biaoju among the "Chinese ten biaoju" ranks, left a thick and heavy in colors chapter in Chinese martial arts history, becoming the precious national memory. Central Plain Folk series recorded "chapter of the way thousands of miles of tea leaves in" Zhong tou Zhen Jiaxian "teahouse" folk, known as "the first sign of folk culture of the central plains". Series "editor's note" cloud: "you may not agree with me, you cannot fail to recognize it like solid material." [32] p2

  Notes:

  The Tea Road Eurasian business, the rise and fall of three hundred years / Deng Jiugang, Hohhot: Inner Mongolia people's Publishing House in 2000 October first edition p72-73.

  The Asian hinterland commercial storm set off a new international commercial port Marx. Kyakhta trade is of particular concern in Central Asia.

  Marx in his "the Russians and Chinese", "critique of political economics" wrote: "this trade, take a year to Run by 12 business hall of the things, of which 6 are Russians, six are Chinese. They discuss the decision the supply of commodities exchange ratio -- because trade is totally barter in kyakhta. Chinese exchange is tea, Russia is cotton fabric." "Border trade Kyakhta generation, in fact according to the treaty is barter, silver but is the measure of value."

  In my opinion, Marx's discussion about the Sino Russian Kyakhta trade will certainly lead to strong sense of intimacy in the contemporary China readers' psychology, but also leads to a sense of responsibility Chinese remorse, you see, as far as Marx in Europe as early as one hundred years ago on China and Russia border trade has deep research, and we what is be indifferent to, turn a deaf ear to, not ashamed?

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